Rhythms of the brain: uncovering a subcortical circuit that modulates cortical gabaergic neurons
Minas Salib, in the group led by Tim Viney and Peter Somogyi, has discovered a new type of neuronal pathway that may be important in memory.
For the encoding and recall of episodic memories, nerve cells in the cerebral cortex are activated in precisely timed sequences. Rhythmicity facilitates the coordination of neuronal activity and these rhythms are detected as oscillations of different frequencies, such as 5–12 Hz theta oscillations. Degradation of these rhythms, such as through neurodegeneration, causes memory deficits. The medial septum, a part of the basal forebrain that innervates the hippocampal formation, contains neurons that fire with a high degree of rhythmicity (HRNs) and others that fire with a low degree of rhythmicity (LRNs). These distinct types of neuron may contribute differentially to the coordination of cortical neuronal activity. Minas and colleagues discovered that GABAergic LRNs preferentially innervate the dentate gyrus and the CA3 area of the hippocampus, regions important for episodic memory. These neurons act in parallel with the HRNs mostly via transient inhibition of inhibitory neurons. A figure from the paper describing these results was chosen to illustrate the front cover of the June 5th issue of Journal of Neuroscience.
Gene therapy in utero for untreatable genetic disease
A recent study involving the Platt group and international collaborators, principally at UCL, but also in Singapore, US, Sweden and South Africa, has demonstrated proof-of principle for gene therapy in utero in a mouse model of acute neuronopathic Gaucher disease. This disease is an extremely severe, rapidly progressive, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme beta-glucocerebrosidase. Most children with the disease die between two and four years of age. The authors used a mouse model of the disease to see if it was possible to prevent expression of the disease after birth by introducing the gene for beta-glucocerebrosidase into the brain of the mouse foetus.
Antiarrhythmic drugs – an updated classification after 50 years
In the late 1960s Miles Vaughan Williams, a member of the staff in the Oxford Department of Pharmacology and Fellow of Hertford College (1955-85), introduced a novel classification of drugs used to treat cardiac arrhythmias. This scheme has been very widely used around the world and has led to the development of new drugs that have saved countless lives. Our understanding of the control of cardiac rhythm has developed in that time and a group of cardiovascular scientists from Oxford, Cambridge and Beijing led by Dr.Ming Lei decided that the time was ripe to modernise the classification and to celebrate the centenary of the birth of Vaughan Williams (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miles_Vaughan_Williams).
Together they have now published a comprehensive modern classification, based upon the original version, in the leading journal ‘Circulation’.
Crystallography of new drug class facilitates structure-based design
The Potter group, leading an international collaboration, has discovered newly-designed synthetic microtubule disruptors with excellent activities and desirable drug-like profiles. This first example of a new drug class bound to tubulin to be explored crystallographically opens up new avenues for structure-based anti-cancer drug design.
Lipid accumulation in the brain may contribute to Parkinson's disease
A collaborative team of researchers from the Platt lab and the Isacson lab (McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School) has found that elevated levels of certain types of lipids (fat molecules) in the brain, called glycosphingolipids, may be an early sign of Parkinson's disease.
RHYTHMIC BRAIN SIGNALS SUPPORTING MEMORY
Isn’t it extraordinary that we can record and retrieve memories of our lives all the time? The ability to make new memories and retrieve old ones is often associated with rhythmic electrical activity in a structure of the brain called hippocampus, as damage to this structure results in an impairment of memory. Abhilasha Joshi and her colleagues have discovered a novel population of nerve cells outside the hippocampus that regulate the rhythmic firing of specialised nerve cells within the hippocampus.
New endogenous cell signalling molecule discovered
The Potter group has been part of an interdisciplinary and international research team that has discovered a new endogenous cellular molecule called 2′-deoxyadenosine 5'-diphosphate ribose (dADPR) that may play an important role as a chemical signal in autoimmune and metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes.
TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS FROM A SMALL NUMBER OF NEURONS PURIFIED FROM THE AGED MOUSE BRAIN
The Minichiello Group in collaboration with the Nerlov laboratory and FACS facility at the MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, has established new methods to isolate brain neurons from the adult and aged mouse. This makes it possible to perform unbiased studies of aging brain neurons from relatively small numbers of neurons by quantitative transcriptome analysis, such as RNA sequencing, that offers higher resolution than other methods.
The heart’s own adrenaline-producing cells can control heart rhythm
The group led by Ming Lei has discovered that the heart can regulate its own rhythm by releasing adrenaline (epinephrine) from a specialised kind of heart muscle cell that contains the enzyme that makes adrenaline.
Rhythmic networks in the brain that help us find our way in the world
The Somogyi group discovered a rhythmic subcortical inhibitory (GABAergic) nerve cell population in a part of the mouse brain called the medial septum that projects to both the dorsal presubiculum and entorhinal cortex but avoids the hippocampus. As set out in a recent paper published in eLife, the group named these nerve cells ‘orchid cells’ based on the shape of the axonal trajectories