Sustained therapeutic effects of oral miglustat (Zavesca, N-butyldeoxynojirimycin, OGT 918) in type I Gaucher disease.
Elstein D., Hollak C., Aerts JM., van Weely S., Maas M., Cox TM., Lachmann RH., Hrebicek M., Platt FM., Butters TD., Dwek RA., Zimran A.
It has been shown that treatment with miglustat (Zavesca, N-butyldeoxynojirimycin, OGT 918) improves key clinical features of type I Gaucher disease after 1 year of treatment. This study reports longer-term efficacy and safety data. Patients who had completed 12 months of treatment with open-label miglustat (100-300 mg three times daily) were enrolled to continue with therapy in an extension study. Data are presented up to month 36. Liver and spleen volumes measured by CT or MRI were scheduled every 6 months. Biochemical and haematological parameters, including chitotriosidase activity (a sensitive marker of Gaucher disease activity) were monitored every 3 months. Safety data were also collected every 3 months. Eighteen of 22 eligible patients at four centres entered the extension phase and 14 of these completed 36 months of treatment with miglustat. After 36 months, there were statistically significant improvements in all major efficacy endpoints. Liver and spleen organ volumes were reduced by 18% and 30%, respectively. In patients whose haemoglobin value had been below 11.5 g/dl at baseline, mean haemoglobin increased progressively from baseline by 0.55 g/dl at month 12 (NS), 1.28 g/dl at month 24 (p =0.007), and 1.30 g/dl at month 36 (p =0.013). The mean platelet count at month 36 increased from baseline by 22 x 10(9)/L. No new cases of peripheral neuropathy occurred since previously reported. Diarrhoea and weight loss, which were frequently reported during the initial 12-month study, decreased in magnitude and prevalence during the second and third years. Patients treated with miglustat for 3 years show significant improvements in organ volumes and haematological parameters. In conclusion, miglustat was increasingly effective over time and showed acceptable tolerability in patients who continued with treatment for 3 years.