Mechanism of activity-dependent downregulation of the neuron-specific K-Cl cotransporter KCC2.
Rivera C., Voipio J., Thomas-Crusells J., Li H., Emri Z., Sipilä S., Payne JA., Minichiello L., Saarma M., Kaila K.
GABA-mediated fast-hyperpolarizing inhibition depends on extrusion of chloride by the neuron-specific K-Cl cotransporter, KCC2. Here we show that sustained interictal-like activity in hippocampal slices downregulates KCC2 mRNA and protein expression in CA1 pyramidal neurons, which leads to a reduced capacity for neuronal Cl- extrusion. This effect is mediated by endogenous BDNF acting on tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), with down-stream cascades involving both Shc/FRS-2 (src homology 2 domain containing transforming protein/FGF receptor substrate 2) and PLCgamma (phospholipase Cgamma)-cAMP response element-binding protein signaling. The plasmalemmal KCC2 has a very high rate of turnover, with a time frame that suggests a novel role for changes in KCC2 expression in diverse manifestations of neuronal plasticity. A downregulation of KCC2 may be a general early response involved in various kinds of neuronal trauma.