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In mammals, identifying the contribution of specific neurons or networks to behavior is a key challenge. Here we describe an approach that facilitates this process by enabling the rapid modulation of synaptic inhibition in defined cell populations. Binding of zolpidem, a systemically active allosteric modulator that enhances the function of the GABAA receptor, requires a phenylalanine residue (Phe77) in the gamma2 subunit. Mice in which this residue is changed to isoleucine are insensitive to zolpidem. By Cre recombinase-induced swapping of the gamma2 subunit (that is, exchanging Ile77 for Phe77), zolpidem sensitivity can be restored to GABAA receptors in chosen cell types. We demonstrate the power of this method in the cerebellum, where zolpidem rapidly induces significant motor deficits when Purkinje cells are made uniquely sensitive to its action. This combined molecular and pharmacological technique has demonstrable advantages over targeted cell ablation and will be invaluable for investigating many neuronal circuits.

Original publication

DOI

10.1038/nn1927

Type

Journal article

Journal

Nat Neurosci

Publication Date

07/2007

Volume

10

Pages

923 - 929

Keywords

Animals, Autoradiography, Behavior, Animal, Electrophysiology, Female, GABA Agonists, Genotype, Green Fluorescent Proteins, Immunohistochemistry, In Situ Hybridization, Male, Mice, Mice, Knockout, Neurons, Patch-Clamp Techniques, Postural Balance, Protein Engineering, Purkinje Cells, Pyridines, Receptors, GABA-A, Receptors, GABA-B, Synapses