High-frequency gamma oscillations coexist with low-frequency gamma oscillations in the rat visual cortex in vitro.
Oke OO., Magony A., Anver H., Ward PD., Jiruska P., Jefferys JGR., Vreugdenhil M.
Synchronization of neuronal activity in the visual cortex at low (30-70 Hz) and high gamma band frequencies (> 70 Hz) has been associated with distinct visual processes, but mechanisms underlying high-frequency gamma oscillations remain unknown. In rat visual cortex slices, kainate and carbachol induce high-frequency gamma oscillations (fast-gamma; peak frequency approximately 80 Hz at 37 degrees C) that can coexist with low-frequency gamma oscillations (slow-gamma; peak frequency approximately 50 Hz at 37 degrees C) in the same column. Current-source density analysis showed that fast-gamma was associated with rhythmic current sink-source sequences in layer III and slow-gamma with rhythmic current sink-source sequences in layer V. Fast-gamma and slow-gamma were not phase-locked. Slow-gamma power fluctuations were unrelated to fast-gamma power fluctuations, but were modulated by the phase of theta (3-8 Hz) oscillations generated in the deep layers. Fast-gamma was spatially less coherent than slow-gamma. Fast-gamma and slow-gamma were dependent on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptors, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors and gap-junctions, their frequencies were reduced by thiopental and were weakly dependent on cycle amplitude. Fast-gamma and slow-gamma power were differentially modulated by thiopental and adenosine A(1) receptor blockade, and their frequencies were differentially modulated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, GluK1 subunit-containing receptors and persistent sodium currents. Our data indicate that fast-gamma and slow-gamma both depend on and are paced by recurrent inhibition, but have distinct pharmacological modulation profiles. The independent co-existence of fast-gamma and slow-gamma allows parallel processing of distinct aspects of vision and visual perception. The visual cortex slice provides a novel in vitro model to study cortical high-frequency gamma oscillations.