Comparison between spontaneous and kainate-induced gamma oscillations in the mouse hippocampus in vitro.
Pietersen AN., Patel N., Jefferys JG., Vreugdenhil M.
Neuronal synchronization at gamma frequency, implicated in cognition, can be evoked in hippocampal slices by pharmacological activation. We characterized spontaneous small-amplitude gamma oscillations (SgammaO) recorded in area CA3 of mouse hippocampal slices and compared it with kainate-induced gamma oscillations (KgammaO). SgammaO had a lower peak frequency, a more sinusoidal waveform and was spatially less coherent than KgammaO, irrespective of oscillation amplitude. CA3a had the smallest oscillation power, phase-led CA3c by approximately 4 ms and had the highest SgammaO frequency in isolated subslices. During SgammaO CA3c neurons fired at the rebound of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) that were associated with a current source in stratum lucidum, whereas CA3a neurons often fired from spikelets, 3-4 ms earlier in the cycle, and had smaller IPSPs. Kainate induced faster/larger IPSPs that were associated with an earlier current source in stratum pyramidale. SgammaO and KgammaO power were dependent on alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, gap junctions and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptors. SgammaO was suppressed by elevating extracellular KCl, blocking N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors or muscarinic receptors, or activating GluR5-containing kainate receptors. SgammaO was not affected by blocking metabotropic glutamate receptors or hyperpolarization-activated currents. The adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethoxyxanthine (8-CPT) and the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251) increased SgammaO power, indicating that endogenous adenosine and/or endocannabinoids suppress or prevent SgammaO in vitro. SgammaO emerges from a similar basic network as KgammaO, but differs in involvement of somatically projecting interneurons and pharmacological modulation profile. These observations advocate the use of SgammaO as a natural model for hippocampal gamma oscillations, particularly during less activated behavioural states.