Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Efficient and flexible syntheses of 2-substituted estrone, estradiol and their 3-O-sulfamate (EMATE) derivatives have been developed using directed ortho-lithiation methodology. 2-Substituted EMATEs display a similar antiproliferative activity profile to the corresponding estradiols against a range of human cancer cell lines. 2-Methoxy (3, 4), 2-methylsulfanyl (20, 21) and 2-ethyl EMATEs (32, 33) proved the most active compounds with 2-ethylestradiol-3-O-sulfamate (33), displaying a mean activity over the NCI 55 cell line panel 80-fold greater than the established anticancer agent 2-methoxyestradiol (2). 2-Ethylestradiol-3-O-sulfamate (33) was also an effective inhibitor of angiogenesis using three in vitro markers, and various 2-substituted EMATEs also proved to be inhibitors of steroid sulfatase (STS), a therapeutic target for the treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancer. The potential of this novel class of multimechanism anticancer agents was confirmed in vivo with good activity observed in the NCI hollow fiber assay and in a MDA-MB-435 xenograft mouse model.

Original publication




Journal article


J Med Chem

Publication Date





5243 - 5256


Angiogenesis Inhibitors, Animals, Antineoplastic Agents, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Proliferation, Crystallography, X-Ray, Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor, Estradiol, Estrone, Female, Humans, Mice, Molecular Structure, Steryl-Sulfatase, Structure-Activity Relationship, Sulfonic Acids, Transplantation, Heterologous