Novel hydrolysis-resistant analogues of cyclic ADP-ribose: modification of the "northern" ribose and calcium release activity.
Guse AH., Cakir-Kiefer C., Fukuoka M., Shuto S., Weber K., Bailey VC., Matsuda A., Mayr GW., Oppenheimer N., Schuber F., Potter BV.
Three novel analogues modified in the "northern" ribose (ribose linked to N1 of adenine) of the Ca(2+) mobilizing second messenger cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose, termed 2"-NH(2)-cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose, cyclic adenosine diphospho-carbocyclic-ribose, and 8-NH(2)-cyclic adenosine diphospho-carbocyclic-ribose, were synthesized (chemoenzymatically and by total synthesis) and spectroscopically characterized, and the pK(a) values for the 6-amino/imino transition were determined in two cases. The biological activity of these analogues was determined in permeabilized human Jurkat T-lymphocytes. 2"-NH(2)-cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose mediated Ca(2+) release was slightly more potent than that of the endogenous cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose in terms of the concentration-reponse relationship. Both compounds released Ca(2+) from the same intracellular Ca(2+) pool. In addition, the control compound 2"-NH(2)-adenosine diphosphoribose was almost without effect. In contrast, only at much higher concentrations (> or =50 microM) did the "northern" carbocyclic analogue, cyclic adenosine diphospho-carbocyclic-ribose, significantly release Ca(2+) from permeabilized T cells, whereas the previously reported "southern" carbocyclic analogue, cyclic aristeromycin diphosphoribose, was slightly more active than the endogenous cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose. Likewise, 8-NH(2)-cyclic adenosine diphospho-carbocyclic-ribose, expected to antagonize Ca(2+) release as demonstrated previously for 8-NH(2)-cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose, did not inhibit cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose mediated Ca(2+) release. This indicates that the 2"-NH(2)-group substitutes well for the 2"-OH-group it replaces; it may be oriented toward the outside of the putative cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose receptor binding domain and/or it can potentially also engage in H bonding interactions with residues of that domain. In sharp contrast to this, replacement of the endocyclic furanose oxygen atom by CH(2) in a carbocyclic system obviously interferes with a crucial element of interaction between cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose and its receptor in T-lymphocytes.