The p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) signalling pathway in cardiac disease: from mechanistic study to therapeutic exploration.
Wang Y., Wang S., Lei M., Boyett M., Tsui H., Liu W., Wang X.
p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) is a member of the highly conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases regulated by Ras-related small G-proteins, Cdc42/Rac1. It has been previously demonstrated to be involved in cardiac protection. Based on recent studies, this review provides an overview of the role of Pak1 in cardiac diseases including disrupted Ca(2+) homoeostasis-related cardiac arrhythmias, adrenergic stress- and pressure overload-induced hypertrophy, and ischaemia/reperfusion injury. These findings demonstrate the important role of Pak1 mediated through the phosphorylation and transcriptional modification of hypertrophy and/or arrhythmia-related genes. This review also discusses the anti-arrhythmic and anti-hypertrophic, protective function of Pak1 and the beneficial effects of fingolimod (an FDA-approved sphingolipid drug), a Pak1 activator, and its ability to prevent arrhythmias and cardiac hypertrophy. These findings also highlight the therapeutic potential of Pak1 signalling in the treatment and prevention of cardiac diseases.